Mean age of General Social Survey Dataset Discussion

Mean age of General Social Survey Dataset Discussion

Mean age of General Social Survey Dataset Discussion


RE: Discussion – Week 2


Table 1

Mean age of General Social Survey Dataset

Mean age of respondents


Minimum Age

Maximum Age


Std. Error







Valid N (listwise)


From the General Social Survey Dataset (General Social Survey Dataset, n.d), the number of respondents totalled 604. The mean age of respondents was 49 with the youngest being 18 and the eldest 89 years of age. The mean age is the average of all 604 respondents in the data set.  Mean age of General Social Survey Dataset Discussion

Figure 1

Highest degree attained by respondents

A pie chart is one of the displays recommended for illustrating nominal variables in a data set. The pie chart in figure 1 segments the levels of degree attained by respondents into percentages of a whole pie. The data shows that a high school level education was attained by the majority of respondents (48%) while the lowest number of respondents (12%) attained a graduate degree. Frankfort-Nachmias (2020) in outlining the difference between frequency and percentage emphasized that it is important to have a percentage representation as it gives the reader a more wholesome picture of the data spread.

Figure 2:

Income levels of respondents

Wagner (2020) posits that histograms are best used in the representation of categorical variables. The categories are usually distinct. Figure 2 displays the income groups of respondents arranged from low to high income levels. Majority of the respondents have income above $25,000 per annum.

Figure 3:

Sexual orientation of respondents

Figure 3 categorizes the number of respondents by sexual orientation, giving the reader a visual of the distribution in summary. This type of represtation does not require a key as the categories are already named on the x-axis. Bar charts are suitable for categorical variables and can also be used to visulaize respondents highest degree level as well as other simialr variables (Frankfort-Nachmias, 2020).


Frankfort-Nachmias, C., Leon-Guerrero, A., & Davis, G. (2020). Social statistics for a 

diverse society (9th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

General Social Survey Dataset [Lecture data set]. (n.d.). Walden University Blackboard.

Wagner, III, W. E. (2020). Using IBM® SPSS® statistics for research methods and social 

science statistics (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

3 days ago

Kristin Reed-Anderson 

RE: Discussion – Week 2 Attachment


Week 2 – Discussion Post

June 9, 2021

Kristin Reed-Anderson

Ph.D, Program – Public Health

Walden University

RSCH 8210: Quantitative Reasoning and Analysis

Instructor Dr. Tawfik

Visual Display of Data

Displaying Data

Week 2 Discussion Graph.png

Why Display the Dataset in the Selected Figure or Table

A histogram can be used to show the differences in the percentages or frequencies between categories of an ordinal or interval-ratio variable (Frankfort-Nachmias et al., 2021).  A histogram looks similar to a bar graph, however unlike the bar graph, the bars in a histogram are adjacent and are in an arranged in a meaningful order.  Histograms are constructed using intervals along the horizontal (X) axis, and the frequencies along the vertical (Y) axis.  The area of each bar represents the number of cases that fall into the given interval (Frankfort-Nachmias et al., 2021).  A multivariate histogram can be used to display stacked bars of one variable’s distribution in relation to the categories of another variable (Wagner, 2020).

In the case of the General Social Survey dataset, the mean of the variable AGE is 49.0 years.  Using the stacked histogram figure allows one to not only visualize the distribution and frequency of the age of the survey’s participants, but also to identify the percentage of the respondent’s race.  In this dataset, it is important to note that the entire data set of 604 cases, with 457 cases, White respondents represent 75% of the entire surveyed population and, at age 74 and above, there is no data or representation from races other than Whites, and Blacks.  Understanding how many cases are within those certain categories can help public health professionals to identify how programs, trends, disease, and other social determinants of health can impact populations differently.  Also, researchers should take care in organizing and summarizing data in an organized systematic fashion as results aim to accurately represent those of the entire population (Frankfort-Nachmias et al., 2021).


Frankfort-Nachmias, C., Leon-Guerrero, A., & Davis, G. (2021). Social statistics for a diverse society (9th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Wagner, W. E. (2020). Using IBM® SPSS® statistics for research methods and social science statistics (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Mean age of General Social Survey Dataset Discussion

3 days ago

Sandra Porter 

RE: Discussion – Week 2


Hello All,

The law of supply and demand is an economic theory that explains how supply and demand are related to each other and how that relationship affects the price of goods and services. It’s a fundamental economic principle that when supply exceeds demand for a good or service, prices fall (Kramer, 2021). When demand exceeds supply, prices tend to rise.

For an example, I have shopped at a boutique shop out of country and the store prices were immaculate. They were really expensive but the store only offered one of a kind pieces. There may have been similar items but not one item was duplicated. With this statement in mind, the the supply is very limited and the demand is high. Because this item is often “wanted” or deemed as a necessary piece, the price can increase (Dr. Steven Shapiro: Health Care Insight for Reopening the Economy 2020).

Another example that I could use is the current pandemic. The Lysol, tissue and disinfectant supplies were in a high demand considering the COVID-19 rise. The demand had increased and the supply was very much so limited. As far as healthcare is concerned, the gap between supply and demand not only contributes to a delay in meeting patients’ needs, but it can also be expensive and generate waste in the system. The experience of many health care organizations demonstrates that demand is not really insatiable, but actually predictable (IHI, n.d).

Price inelasticity of a product may be caused by the presence of more affordable alternatives in the market, or it may mean the product is considered nonessential by consumers (Guerrero-López et al., 2017). Rising prices will reduce demand if consumers are able to find substitutions, but have less of an impact on demand when alternatives are not available.  Mean age of General Social Survey Dataset Discussion


Guerrero-López, C. M., Unar-Munguía, M., & Colchero, M. A. (2017, February 10). Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile. BMC Public Health.

Kramer, L. (2021, May 19). How Does the Law of Supply and Demand Affect Prices? Investopedia.

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012). Supply of health care services. Baltimore, MD: Author.

May 6, 2020. (2020, May 6). Dr. Steven Shapiro: Health Care Insight for Reopening the Economy. UPMC & Pitt Health Sciences News Blog.

Measure and Understand Supply and Demand: IHI. Institute for Healthcare Improvement. (n.d.).

3 days ago

Dominique Morgan 

RE: Discussion – Week 2


Brief example of supply and demand for public health goods and services

Supply describes the number of services or resources that is available to consumers while demand is the actual want of the consumer for that service or resource (Dewey, 2019). People are living longer, especially the Baby Boomer generation. Because of the rise in life expectancy, people require health care, services, and programs further into their lifetime. Increased life expectancy places a demand on the healthcare and public health systems to be equipped to provide care and services for more extended periods of time. However, the supply of nurses and physicians to carry out these services has experienced a shortage in the United States (U.S.). A shortage of registered nurses is expected to rise across the U.S. between 2016 and 2030 (American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 2020). It was projected that the U.S. dealt with a shortage of over 45,000 primary care physicians and over 46,000 specialists in 2020 (Zhang et al., 2020). It is estimated that by 2030, the demand for doctors in the U.S. will exceed the supply of doctors, resulting in a shortage of approximately 121,300 doctors (Zhang et al., 2020).

Two factors that might influence price elasticity of demand for public health goods or services in your example

The law of demand refers to why people act when consuming or buying goods or services (Laureate Education, 2012a). One factor that might influence price elasticity of demand for shortages of providers with an increasing life expectancy of the public is the relationship between the price at which the public will consume the additional health services and the amount of healthcare providers being produced in the health and public health systems. A second factor that might influence the price elasticity of demand is the availability of substitutes. For example, there are no substitutes for nurses or physicians to carry out the level of services needed to help patients sustain their health and treat conditions, causing an inelastic demand (Getzen, 2013). Mean age of General Social Survey Dataset Discussion

How and why price elasticity might influence the quantity of goods and services demanded in that example

Price elasticity might influence the quantity of services demanded for shortages of providers with increasing life expectancy of the public is changes in technology (Laureate Education, 2012b). The development of new tools, procedures, medications, public health programs, and more can impact and open up the amount and types of services healthcare providers can provide. Another factor is changes in costs of services. The increasing difficulty in producing additional healthcare providers can impact the cost, usually with an increase (Laureate Education, 2012b).


American Association of Colleges of Nursing (2020). Nursing shortage

Dewey, J., PhD. (2019). Supply and demand. Salem Press Encyclopedia.

Getzen, T.E. (2013). Health economics and financing (5th ed.). John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Laureate Education, Inc. (2012a). Demand for health and health care [Video]. Walden University Blackboard.

Laureate Education, Inc. (2012b). Supply of health care services [Video]. Walden University Blackboard.

Zhang, X., Lin, D., Pforsich, H., & Lin, V.W. (2020). Physician workforce in the United States of America: Forecasting nationwide shortages. Human Resources for Health18(1), 8.

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