EV 4005 Evaluation Data Analysis Presentation
EV 4005 Evaluation Data Analysis Presentation
In this Competency Assessment, you will be applying data collection tools (namely, different types of surveys) to your public health program and analyzing that application. Refer to pp. 106–116 of the McKenzie et al. textbook to help you understand each component of the analysis and then complete each section.
|Public Health Program|
|Title of your program:Safe and healthy sexual practices education||Your targeted population: Adolescents and youths between the age of 13 and 18 years old in a High School|
|Explain how the selection of different data collection tools can impact the success of the program evaluation either positively or negatively. EV 4005 Evaluation Data Analysis Presentation
Selecting data collection tools requires deciding whether secondary data sources are available or collecting new data, therefore, using primary data collection. Data collection tools include devices used when collecting data, for example, paper questionnaires, checklists, and interviews. These tools affect the quality of evidence and the credibility of the data collected. There would not be qualitative data, and the respondents might be dishonest or leave them unanswered, using a data tool such as questionnaires. However, questionnaires can be used when the targeted population is extensive since they are cost-effective, present actionable data, and can be easily analyzed and visualized. Therefore, selecting data collection tools can be based on research integrity, data accuracy and minimize errors or bias in decision making. Different data collection tools can affect the ethical factors of the research; for example, they can involve falsification or misrepresentation. Selecting the wrong data collection tool can lead to distorted results, thereby wasting resources and time.
|Select and describe one survey instrument that you have identified for measuring your selected outcome objectives.
Safe Sex Behavior Questionnaires (SSBQ)
A questionnaire can be described as a form containing questions that can be printed or intended for online completion. Questionnaires were distributed to respondents in several ways. The survey instrument serves as a primary source of data for the participants. Each questionnaire is arranged around several topics, generally shown on either the first page of each part or as a header. In general, the questionnaires seek views on subjects directly connected to the research aims of a targeted population. To measure my selected outcomes, I will use the SSBQ since it was intended to be an instrument for measuring the frequency of safe sex practices use (DiIorio et al., 1992).
|Analyze the level of measurement (2–3 paragraphs)
These levels include ordinal, ratio, nominal, and interval scales that capture information in the form of questionnaires. Every scale is increasing, indicating that every scale satisfies the preceding scale and all the question scales. The numerical values only name the variable in nominal measurement. There is no question of sorting the cases. The variables can be classified in ordinal measures. Here, there is no significance in distances between attributes. The distance between variables has meaning in the interval measurement. There is always a meaningful absolute zero in ratio measurement. It means a significant fraction or ratio can be constructed with a ratio attribute.
When conducting safe and healthy sexual practices education program the examples of questions and levels of measurement include.
Do you think condoms ruin the natural act of sex? It is an example of a nominal level of measures with a Yes or No answer, and its variable is sexual health belief and norms Acharya, Thomas &Cann, (2016).
How often should a teenager have unprotected sex?
Answers: Always, sometimes, rarely, or never. It is an example of an ordinal level of measurement with a variable on sexual health knowledge.
About how many times in the past year have you come across sources of sexual health information? Answer in the form of times. It is an example of a ratio level of measurement with a variable about the origins of sexual health information.
|Analyze the reading/literacy level (2–3 paragraphs)
The Safe Sex Behavior Questionnaires (SSBQ) is a low literacy questionnaire as the adolescents are in the developmental stages and do not know much about sex education. The students are marginally literate since they can read and comprehend the questions being asked. To determine the student’s knowledge on safe sex and STIs, the questionnaire would be divided into two parts covering safe sex and STIs, and each piece contained several questions using multiple choice answers to categorize answers with yes or no. These questions touched on topics such as where students got information about family planning and where they got information about STIs from the mass media.
|Analyze the cultural appropriateness (2–3 paragraphs)
Safe Sex Behavior Questionnaires (SSBQ) are culturally appropriate because adolescents are vulnerable to severe risks such as sexual abuse, coercion, sexually transmitted infections, HIV, pregnancy, and uncertain abortion without preparing for their sexual lives. It is important to note that all threats can be avoided. Since the school has separated state from religion, I do not believe there will be any hindrance preventing students from acquiring the knowledge. EV 4005 Evaluation Data Analysis Presentation
The participant’s religious factors included religious belief, the importance of religion, attendance at religious services, and their level of acceptance for sexual intercourse before marriage and the use of birth control. The questions about communication with family and peers sought answers using categories ‘Never,’ Rarely,’ ‘Sometimes,’ and ‘Often’ during their lifetime. The questions would also touch on the issue of LGBTQ+ and whether it is acceptable in their family. The provision of sexual health education for young people is a common concern; many parents think it can lead to early sexual activity and deprivation of childhood innocence, for example. They believe it’s against their culture or religion. However, children gaining this knowledge will do better than harm.
|Analyze what the data intend to measure (2–3 paragraphs)
The data would be qualitative, where it can be expressed in terms of words and descriptions, or quantitative, where it can be described in terms of number or categorical data defined in terms of groups. The dependent variables to be measured include:
Sexual health knowledge.
Sources of sexual health information.
Sexual health beliefs and norms.
Sexual health behaviors.
The dependent variable to the knowledge of safe sex would be measured by 11 positive questions and 2 negative questions, and the tools for the questionnaire about knowledge of STIs would consist of several items regarding an understanding of the types, causes, routes, symptoms of STIs and types of prevention for STIs.
In a safe and healthy sexual practices education program, the data intended is both quantitative and qualitative. Both quantitative and qualitative data would seek to understand the respondents’ understanding, knowledge and perceptions, and behaviors about sexual health. Quantitative data would measure the level of occurrences related to sexual health, and it would study and measure actions and trends as well as be definitive and provide proof. The structured
the questionnaire was used to collect information about knowledge of safe sex and STIs, socio-demographic characteristics, and other variables
such as characteristics of the school, family, peers, and religious factors
A self-administrated structured questionnaire was
used to collect information about knowledge of safe
sex and STIs, socio-demographic characteristics and
other variables such as characteristics of school,
family, peers, and religious factors
|Summary of Psychometric Qualities|
|In your own words, define reliability.
Reliability can be described as the coherence of a measure throughout time, across various subjects, and among researchers.
|In your own words, define validity.
Validity means to what degree the measured values represent the variable to which they were meant.
|Describe at least two types of reliability of your survey instrument, referring to the types listed in Box 5.2 on page 116.
· Internal Consistency: It refers to the intercorrelation among the individual items. It means that all the questions in the questionnaire represent the same construct in that the participant’s responses are consistent. To measure student satisfaction with the sex education class, one could create a questionnaire with a set of statements that students must agree or disagree with. Internal consistency tells you whether the statements are all reliable indicators of student satisfaction.
· Equivalence: It involves alternative forms of the same instrument, in this case,a questionnaire producing similar results when measuring the same target group. One would develop two equivalent, parallel forms of the survey; form A and form B say, both measuring the same underlying construct such as sexual knowledge, but with different questions in each. Respondents are asked to complete both surveys; some taking form A followed by form B, others taking form B first then form A. As the questions differ in each survey, the questions within each are combined to form separate scales.
|Describe at least two types of validity of your survey instrument,referring to the types listed in Box 5.2 on page 116.
· Face validity: this refers to the degree to which a measurement method seems on the face to measures the concept of interest. The questionnaire can include questions related to safe and healthy sexual practices. I would use an evaluation form such as wording clarity, style, and layout to determine the face validity
· Content validity refers to the degree to which the instrument covers or corresponds to the concepts of interest. The concept of interests include sexual health knowledge, sources of sexual health information, sexual health beliefs and norms, sexual health behaviors.
|Explain why the data collection tool you selected is appropriate for your target population.
Using questionnaires as a data collection tool is economical both to the students’ respondents in this case in terms of time and me, cost, and effort. It is appropriate when collecting data in a sample population spread in a large area such as a school. It can also help me access responses rapidly because questionnaires can be received quickly. I selected the SSBQ because it provides an in-depth measure of sexual behaviors compared to other tools that focus more on behaviors such as condoms. SSBQ also has good validity and reliability (DiIorio et al., 1992).
Acharya, D. R., Thomas, M., &Cann, R. (2016). Validation of a questionnaire to measure sexual health knowledge and understanding (Sexual Health Questionnaire) in Nepalese secondary school: A psychometric process. Journal of education and health promotion, 5.
DiIorio, C., Parsons, M., Lehr, S., Adame, D., Carlone, J. (1992). Measurement of safe sex behavior in adolescents and young adults. Nursing Research, 41(4)203-208.
Lee, E. E., Farran, C. J., Tripp-Reimer, T., & Sadler, G. R. (2003). Assessing the cultural appropriateness of the finding meaning through caregiving scale for Korean caregivers. Journal of nursing measurement, 11(1), 19-28.
Olson, K., Smyth, J. D., Wang, Y., & Pearson, J. E. (2011). The self-assessed literacy Index: Reliability and validity. Social Science Research, 40(5), 1465-1476.
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