Ethical Considerations Associated of Conducting Nursing Research

Ethical Considerations Associated of Conducting Nursing Research

Ethical Considerations Associated of Conducting Nursing Research

DQ1

CW

1 posts

Re: Topic 2 DQ 1

Qualitative data has been described as voluminous and sometimes overwhelming to the researcher. One strategy that would help a researcher manage and organize the data is by using the American Nurses Association’s (ANA) Code of Ethics as a framework.  There are 9 different provisions that allow nurses to navigate through complex situations and ethical problems (Grand Canyon University, 2018).  Each of the provisions deal with a different area involving patient care:

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Provisions

  1. Patient’s dignity
  2. Primacy of patient’s interest
  3. Promotion of patient’s safety
  4. Nurses accountability and responsibility
  5. Nurse’s self-integrity
  6. Influence of environment
  7. Continuing education
  8. Global perspective
  9. Profession association   (Reid, n.d.)

Using the framework as a guide to organize data for qualitative research, enables the nurse to design a moral basis to deliver exceptional care to the patient. Ethical Considerations Associated of Conducting Nursing Research

Another strategy that can be used when compiling data for qualitative nursing research is the Foundational Ethical Principles; autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, veracity, fidelity, and confidentiality (GCU, 2018).  Nurses should use these as guiding standards when researching, especially in areas that we might not personally agree with.  The profession of nursing must always be one built in trust- where every person is treated with dignity & respect.  Nurses have the responsibility make sure their nursing research is safe, ethical and never causes undue harm.  Keeping these principles in mind while researching, will help nurses abide by them.

Grand Canyon University (GCU) (Ed). (2018). Nursing research: Understanding methods for best practice. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs433v/nursing-research-understanding-methods-for-best-practice/v1.1

Reid, Stephanie. (n.d.). Nurse’s Code of Professional Conduct. Work – Chron.com. Retrieved from http://work.chron.com/nurses-code-professional-conduct-4110.html

DQ2

FNN

1 posts

Re: Topic 2 DQ 1

Data that approximates or characterizes but does not measure the attributes, characteristics, properties, etc., of a thing or phenomenon is called qualitative data. Data management is a challenging, integral, and vital part of qualitative research and is crucial to ensure successful studies. Being able to organize your data, i.e., converting your raw data to a final concise report, is an essential skill in scientific academic research.

The 1st strategy to manage qualitative data is organization. Organization is very important to your research study – you don’t want a piece of rogue data to go missing, and bad organization can stop you finding the most objective and fairest conclusion. Combine related themes into major categories. Label these categories and create file (or Word document) for each major category.

The 2nd strategy is labelling. Create a system for labeling and storing interviews. This can be conducted using a unique name or case identifier for each file. These should reveal crucial information about the file to researchers. All labelled materials should be safely stored for future reference when writing or doing research paper editing.

Managing your qualitative data using these steps and others will prevent any confusion about data during analysis.

References

Medium.com. (2020). How to Manage Qualitative Data: A Step-by-Step Guide. Retrieved from https://medium.com/@setsindia/how-to-manage-qualitative-data-a-step-by-step-guide-e30716514b01

DQ3

TD-S

4 posts

Re: Topic 2 DQ 1

Qualitative data has been described as voluminous and sometimes overwhelming to the researcher and hence strategies must be utilized to help manage and organize the data. Data management is a challenging, integral, and vital part of qualitative research and is crucial to ensure successful studies. It is important for researchers to be able to organize their data, i.e., converting their raw data to a final concise report, which is an essential skill in scientific academic research. Major research projects can easily generate millions of words. Fortunately, recent advances in computer technology and software have made it possible to manage these mountains of words more efficiently.

One strategy that may be utilized is using a systematic process to document key decisions for (example a code book), clear direction, and open communication among team members during data analysis. Some software programs also offer sophisticated coding and visualization capabilities that facilitate and enhance interpretation and understanding. For example, if data segments are coded by specific characteristics (e.g., gender, race/ethnicity), the data can be sorted and analyzed by these characteristics, which may contribute to an understanding of whether and/or how a particular phenomenon may vary by these characteristics (Wu et al, 2016)

Safe storage of materials. All materials should be safely stored for future reference when writing or doing research paper editing.

Another strategy is keeping track of sources. It is important for researchers to ensure that the source of all the data can be identified, such as by individual, site, and date. Developing a data tracking system can help with this and this information is available for easy reference (Medium, 2015).

Utilizing these strategies can help to prevent confusion during data analysis, help to maintain accuracy and ensure quality of the data analysis.

References

Medium.com. (2015). How to manage qualitative data: A step-by-step guide. Retrieved from

https://medium.com/@setsindia/how-to-manage-qualitative-data-a-step-by-step-guide-e30716514b01

Wu, Y. P.; Thompson, D.; Aroian, K. J.; McQuaid, E. L.; Deatrick, J. A. (2016). Commentary: Writing and evaluating qualitative research reportsJournal of Pediatric Psychology.41(5):493-505. Doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsw032. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4888120/

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DQ4

ER

1 posts

Re: Topic 2 DQ 1

Qualitative data can be overwhelming due to the large volume of information that is being collected. The researcher needs to first and foremost have a designated plan of what kind of information needs to be collected and how that information will be organized for easier and efficient recall. With so much technology available, the researcher is able to organize data with the use of computer programs (Johnson, Dunlap and Benoit, 2010). The researcher can decide how the data is to be organized. One can organize according to sources of collection. For example, the data can be divided into interviews, focus groups, observations, field work and other sources (Johnson, Dunlap and Benoit, 2010).

In addition, information gathered from these above sources can be coded through a process of semi-quantitative coding that assigns responses to a number/code that can be organized into themes and/or subjects for analysis (Johnson, Dunlap and Benoit, 2010). These can then be displayed on spreadsheets, graphs or charts. This coding can also be used to hide the real identity of the subjects and for gender, age and ethnicity (Johnson, Dunlap and Benoit, 2010).

Johnson, B. D., Dunlap, E., & Benoit, E. (2010). Organizing “mountains of words” for data analysis, both qualitative and quantitative. Substance use & misuse45(5), 648–670. https://doi.org/10.3109/10826081003594757 Ethical Considerations Associated of Conducting Nursing Research

DQ5

FNN

1 posts

Re: Topic 2 DQ 2

Phenomenology and Grounded theory

Phenomenology

Phenomenological study is the appropriate qualitative method used when you want to describe an event, activity, or phenomenon. Here, you use a combination of methods, such as conducting interviews, reading documents, watching videos, or visiting places and events, to understand the meaning participants place on whatever’s being examined. You rely on the participants’ own perspectives to provide insight into their motivations.

Example: There’s been an explosion in the last 5 years in online courses and training. But how do students engage with these courses? A phenomenological study would aim to better understand the students experience and how that may impact comprehension of the material.

Grounded theory

Whereas a phenomenological study looks to describe the essence of an activity or event, grounded theory looks to provide an explanation or theory behind the events. You use primarily interviews and existing documents to build a theory based on the data.

Example: a grounded theory study could involve understanding how small retail merchants approve or decline customers for credit.

Similarities

Both grounded theorists and phenomenologists seek to collect and analyze data from participants’ perspectives and try to ensure their findings are not influenced by preconceived ideas. To achieve this, they often involve participants in data analysis to increase the trustworthiness of the findings. In brief, grounded theorists and phenomenologists both seek to explore individuals’ experiences in the context of the worlds in which they live.

Differences

Phenomenology is often referred to as the “lived experience” and data is often limited to interviews. Grounded theorists seek to include all data sources that might contribute to theory development. Interviews are commonly used but they might also include observations, diaries, images, past literature and research.

References

Nursing Times. (2011). What is the difference between grounded theory and phenomenology? Retrieved from https://www.nursingtimes.net/roles/nurse-educators/what-is-the-difference-between-grounded-theory-and-phenomenology-31-01-2011/

Sauro J. (2020). 5 Types of Qualitative Methods. Retrieved from https://measuringu.com/qual-methods/

DQ6

ER

1 posts

Re: Topic 2 DQ 2

There are three types of qualitative research, phenomenological, ethnographic and grounded (Helbig, 2018). Phenomenological studies the lived experiences of people (Helbig, 2018). It is usually done through interviews and hearing the story one has to tell through their eyes (Helbig, 2018). For example, we all have a story that is individualized to us. Two people may share the same experience, however it may be interpreted much differently between the two individuals. Ethnographic examines cultural behaviors (Helbig, 2018). This differs from phenomenological in that it is usually done by observation and can be shared among a group and or community of people. For example, many cultures share the same religious/spiritual practices, dietary and or medical treatment practices. The two can also be connected in that the culture an individual practices (ethnographic) can greatly influence one’s way of interpreting lived experiences (phenomenological).

Helbig, J. (2018). Nursing Research: Understanding Methods for Best Practice. Retrieved from: https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs433v/nursing-research-understanding-methods-for-best-practice/v1.1/#/chapter/1

Objectives:

  1. Analyze the ethical considerations associated of conducting nursing research.
  2. Evaluate the components of a qualitative research article.
  3. Compare different types of qualitative designs.

I want to make sure you are aware of resources that should not be used in this week’s assignment. Systematic Reviews, Literature Reviews, and Metanalysis articles are useful resources and provide a strong level of evidence but are not considered primary research articles and should not be included in this week’s assignment.

All studies should be current (within 5-10 years).

Sources

Read Chapter 2 in Nursing Research: Understanding Methods for Best Practice.

URL:

https://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/grand-canyon-university/2018/nursing-research_understanding-methods-for-best-practice_1e.php

Read “Chapter 7: Human Experimentation,” by Bekier, from The Ethical Considerations of Medical Experimentation on Human Subjects (2016).

URL:

http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/SocialSciences/ppecorino/MEDICAL_ETHICS_TEXT/Chapter_7_Human_Experimentation/Reading-Nazi-experimentation.htm

Read “What Is Your Research Question? An Introduction to the PICOT Format for Clinicians,” by Riva et al., from The Journal of Canadian Chiropractic Association (2012).

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3430448/

Read “Legal and Ethical Issues in Research,” by Yip, Han, and Sng, from Indian Journal of Anaesthesia (2016). Ethical Considerations Associated of Conducting Nursing Research

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5037952/

Read “The ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses,” by the International Council of Nurses (2012), located on the ICN website.

URL:

https://www.icn.ch/sites/default/files/inline-files/2012_ICN_Codeofethicsfornurses_%20eng.pdf

Read “Ethical Challenges of Researchers in Qualitative Studies: The Necessity to Develop a Specific Guideline,” by Sanjari, Bahramnezhad, Fomani, Shoghi, and Cheraghi, from Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine (2014).

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4263394/

Read “Commentary: Writing and Evaluating Qualitative Research Reports,” by Wu, Thompson, Aroian, McQuaid, and Deatrick, from Journal of Pediatric Psychology (2016).

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4888120/

Read “Lessons From HeLa Cells: The Ethics and Policy of Biospecimens,” by Beskow, from Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics (2016).

URL:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5072843/

Refer to “Searching Nursing Databases” in the GCU Library, as needed, for searching the main nursing and health sciences database.

URL:

http://libguides.gcu.edu/c.php?g=330084&p=2846444

Reference the “APA Basics” information, located on the GCU Library website, to assist with the APA format and documentation of sources required for the assignment.

URL:

http://libguides.gcu.edu/CitingSources/APA#s-lg-box-19138654

Reference the “GCU Library Research Guides: Citing Sources” resource for information on how to cite sources properly.

URL:

http://libguides.gcu.edu/c.php?g=330092&p=2216210

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