Dissertation Prospectus Essay Paper
Dissertation Prospectus Essay Paper
Prospectus Submission Needing Corrections
Please find attached original version that needs corrections and the corrected version. Please help make corrections as requested by the professor. Dissertation Prospectus Essay Paper
The Prospectus Overview and Instructions
1. Read the entire Prospectus Template to understand the requirements for writing your prospectus. Each section contains a narrative overview of what should be included in the section and a table with required criteria for each section. WRITE TO THE CRITERIA, as they will be used to assess the prospectus for overall quality and feasibility of your proposed research study. Dissertation Prospectus Essay Paper
2. As you draft each section, delete the narrative instructions and insert your work related to that section. Use the criterion table for each section to ensure that you address the requirements for that particular section. Do not delete/remove the criterion table as this is used by you and your committee to evaluate your prospectus.
3. Prior to submitting your prospectus for review by your chair or methodologist, use the criteria table for each section to complete a realistic self-evaluation, inserting what you believe is your score for each listed criterion into the Learner Self-Evaluation column. This is an exercise in self-evaluation and critical reflection, and to ensure that you completed all sections, addressing all required criteria for that section.
4. The scoring for the criteria ranges from a 0-3 as defined below. Complete a realistic and thoughtful evaluation of your work. Your chair and methodologist will also use the criterion tables to evaluate your work.
5. Your Prospectus should be no longer than 6-10 pages when the tables are deleted. Dissertation Prospectus Essay Paper
|0||Item Not Present|
|1||Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required: Not all components are present. Large gaps are present in the components that leave the reader with significant questions. All items scored at 1 must be addressed by learner per reviewer comments.|
|2||Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May Be Required Now or in the Future. Component is present and adequate. Small gaps are present that leave the reader with questions. Any item scored at 2 must be addressed by the learner per the reviewer comments.|
|3||Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions Required. Component is addressed clearly and comprehensively. No gaps are present that leave the reader with questions. No changes required. Dissertation Prospectus Essay Paper|
Mental health is a major issue around the World. The United Nations (UN, 2015), has identified the issue as one of its Sustainable Development Goals. The UN expressed its uncertainty regarding the extent at which major social determinants of mental disorders is being addressed Worldwide (WHO, 2015). Therefore, it is developing a conceptual framework that will address the social determinants and aligns it with its sustainable development goals so that it can systematically review the evidences about the social determinants and identify potential mechanisms and targets for interventions (Lund, et.al, 2018). Accordingly, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the U.S. Department of Justice, every year in this country, millions of people suffer from mental illness. The high numbers necessitate raising public awareness and start campaigning for a much better health care system (Hamilton.et.al, 2016). In 2018, 47.6 million people in the U.S. experienced mental illness which means 1 in every 5 adults. 11.4 million Adults between ages 25 and 35 had an episode of serious mental illness. In 2016, 7.7 million youths aged 6-17 experienced some sort of mental health disorder, while 9.2 million people were reported to have experienced substance use disorder (National Alliance on Mental Illness, 2019). Dissertation Prospectus Essay Paper
The U.S. Mental Health Care & Policy: Mental Health America (MHA), was developed in 1909. First studies on the effects of not using mental health services was identified in the mid-1950s It found that institutional inpatient and outpatient care models are required, which facilitated the development of a variety of antipsychotic drugs Augsberger, Yeung, Dougher, & Hahm (2015). Analyzed the hidden barriers to accessing care and utilization of mental health for Asian American Women in Southern Texas Hamilton, Desai, Hoot, Gearing, Jeong, Meyer, & Begley (2016). Reviewed and analyzed how the likelihood of lower hospitalization was associated with the race of African Americans while increasing age was a key predisposing factor in increased likelihood of hospitalization in South Texas. Dissertation Prospectus Essay Paper
First studies on the effects of using mental health services was identified in the mid-1950s. The studies identified the needs as:Dissertation Prospectus Essay Paper
· Deficiencies in Care
· Proper Treatment of People with Mental illnesses
· Cruel and Inhumane Treatment of People with Mental illnesses
· The need for Institutional Inpatient and Outpatient Care Models
· Need to Facilitate the Development of a Variety of Antipsychotic Drugs
Raval, G. R., & Doupnik, S. K. (2017), and Moore, J. & Krehbiel, C. (2016). identified the GAPS in mental health as
· Inadequate access to care
· Lack of adequate funding for the mental health sector
· Cost/Lower income earnings makes it had to get mental health services
Median treatment gap for schizophrenia & psychosis: 32.2%.; Depression: 56.3%; Dysthymia: 56.0%; Bipolar disorder: 50.2%; Panic disorder: 55.9%; GAD: 57.5%; OCD: 57.3%.; Alcohol abuse and dependence treatment gap at 78.1%.
Solutions were identified as:
· Reducing stigma
· Improving mental health literacy
· Creating Awareness
Moore, J. & Krehbiel, C. (2016). Raval, G. R., & Doupnik, S. K. (2017). Unite for Site (2020).
According to Kohn, et. al, (2018), there are emphasis on the gap in mental health treatment in the American Region when examined through the prevalence of mental health disorders, use of mental health services, and the global burden of disease. Statistical data from community-based surveys of mental disorders in the various countries in America including Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, and the United States etc. were utilized. The World Mental Health Survey published data were used in estimating professional the treatment gap. For Canada, Chile, and Guatemala, the treatment gap was calculated from data files. The mean, median, and weighted treatment gap, and the 12-month prevalence by severity and category of mental disorder were estimated for the general adult, child-adolescent, and indigenous populations. Disability-adjusted Life Years and Years Lived with Disability were calculated from the Global Burden of Disease study. Mental and substance use disorders accounted for 10.5% of the global burden of disease in the Americas (Kohn, Ali, Puac-Polanco, Figueroa, López-Soto, Morgan, & Vicente, 2018). Dissertation Prospectus Essay Paper
Individuals’ decision to utilize mental health is increasingly becoming a concern because of health insurance coverage and the extent to which it narrow-network plans, this include the few 25 percent of providers in the health insurance market, effects of individuals’ choice of chosen and accessing specialty providers-particularly in mental health care. According to the research conducted in 2016 with 531 provider participant networks in the Affordable Care Act Marketplaces, in which the networks were evaluated based on their size and the percentage of providers in any network as they differ between mental health care providers and a control group of primary care providers. In comparison to the primary care networks, providers’ participation in the mental health networks was found to be low, with less than 43% of psychiatrists and less 20% of nonphysician mental health care providers participating in any network. Averagely, less than 25% of all primary care providers and just about 11.3 percent of all mental health care providers practice in a given state-level market. As a result of these findings, important questions have risen about provider barriers of not meeting the goal of mental health parity regulations. Meeting the demand and increasing network participation among mental health care providers including greater attention to regulations of network size and composition, could improve consumer choice and complement efforts at influencing individuals’ decision to utilize mental health (Zhu, Zhang, & Polsky, 2017). Dissertation Prospectus Essay Paper
Bowdoin, Rodriguez-Monguio, Puleo, Keller, & Roche, (2018) emphasized that patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is a model meant for improving health outcomes while at the same time meant to contain the cost of care. Yet, the evidence is inconclusive. This study aims at studying and examining the links between care provided in consistent with the PCMH and healthcare services utilization as well as expenditures for non-aging citizens who are suffering mental illness in the United States. A survey that was conducted which used self-reported data of 6908 non-aging adults suffering mental illness participated in the 2007-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Participants involved in the study on utilization of healthcare services were compared with expenditures on care consistent with the PCMH, other participants include non-PCMH usual source of care (USC), and participants without a USC. The outcome showed differences in utilization and expenditures between participants who were provided with care consistent with the PCMH and the volunteers who had a non-PCMH USC showed non statistical importance for any healthcare services category. The conclusion demonstrated that there are consistencies in care received with the PCMH was not significantly linked with differences in healthcare services utilization or expenditures when compared to having a non-PCMH USC.
The health sector in the Southern State has been applauded for the good work in health allocations and expenditures. However, despite all the expenditures and better services offered to the people living in the State, mental health sector still faces challenges, especially among many Asian and African American people who have little to no access of utilizing of the services within the region (Texas, 2017). The Texas 2017 mental health national outcome measures (NOMS), attributed a number of factors that hinder most people from accessing mental health services to include inadequate access to care, costs, and lower income earnings. In addition, the results of the studies conducted on mental health care in the State have shown that the issue of mental health services has a big gap among the different cultures, but mostly affecting the minority groups in the nation. The most difficult challenge that was established was the improvement of mental health especially among the minority groups such as the Asian Americans and the African Americans. In most reported cases, many people are dying and committing suicide as a result of not properly utilizing mental illness health services and lack of insurance coverage. Dissertation Prospectus Essay Paper
One Southern State has been recognized as one of the States where the utilization of mental health facilities is below the expected standards. Although it is one of the areas with the highest and the best health facilities, yet, this Southern State still faces a lot of challenges on the number of children with mental health challenges. Dissertation Prospectus Essay Paper
The study will be conducted on all ethnic communities including African Americans, Asian Americans Hispanics and the Caucasian citizens of the Southern State, that were affected by lack of mental health services. The high mental health cases in this Southern State are blamed on various factors. One of the factors is the lack of enough and well-trained mental health professionals within the county. Such has resulted to lack of utilization of the mental health facilities, hence the rising number of mentally challenged children. Poverty levels in the Southern State have also been blamed for the increased number of mentally challenged children. Most of the people in the Southern State have low income and cannot afford insurance hence lacking the access to mental healthcare. Dissertation Prospectus Essay Paper
Providers in the mental healthcare clinics in the State, agreed that many people laced knowledge about the mental healthcare because of their low social status. Also, they acknowledged that they lacked enough knowledge about the importance of mental healthcare. Dissertation Prospectus Essay Paper
This is a research study will examine how mental health providers describe the factors influencing individuals’ decision to utilize mental health services in South Texas. The study is important in understanding the major reasons for utilizing and reasons that limit utilization of mental health services in the State and recommending ways through which the issues can be resolved.
|Criteria||Learner Self-Evaluation Score
|Chair Evaluation Score
This section briefly overviews the research focus or problem, why this study is worth conducting, and how this study will be completed.
The recommended length for this section is two to three paragraphs.
|1. Dissertation topic is introduced along with why the study is needed.|
|2. Provides a summary of results from the prior empirical research on the topic.|
|3. Using results, societal needs, recommendations for further study, or needs identified in three to five research studies (primarily from the last three years), the learner identifies the stated need, called a gap|
|4. Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.|
|NOTE: This Introduction section elaborates on the Topic from the 10 Strategic Points . This Introduction section provides the foundation for the Introduction section in Chapter 1 of the Proposal.|
Background of the Problem
The objective of this prospectus is to examine the factors influencing individuals’ decision to utilize mental health in the South of United State of America. Previous research works have explored the field of health accessibility not only in Texas but throughout the country. When narrowing down to the State, research has shown a gap alignment of medical services and needs of the people living in the State. Children at Risk (2017) deliberate on various increasing children with mental disorders’ needs in the society. Most of them develop mental illness from birth. Though the State has been applauded for having the best health services, the region still faces a number of challenges which are a threat to the child-health. Access to mental health is a gap yet to be filled in Texas (Beatty, Wilson, Ciecior, & Stringer, 2015). This has been fueled by few mental health professionals in the State, which has led to poor infrastructure in the mental health sector. The sectors greatly affected are the juvenile systems and emergency facilities. Many people in the region are uninsured and also have lower income which makes it had for them to get mental health services. In addition, poor parenting was a great contributor of health illness. This calls for further research into the field to understand more factors which affects the utilization of mental-health services in the areas not only in children but all people of this Southern State County.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, mental health has become a significant public health issue in the United States that requires immediate attention and must be diagnosed at its early stages. Without an early diagnosis and treatment, children and adolescents may experience problems in the home, at school and among friends including issues with forming friendships (CDC, 2018). Accordingly, researchers have explored some barriers relating to the utilization of mental health service, notwithstanding, there were other factors that may also influence individuals’ decision to not utilize mental health.
Providers are primarily the means by which most people including children and adolescents as well as adults enter treatment. They are responsible for taking care of their patients/clients physical and emotional well-being. The objective here is to specifically explore any relationship existing in utilizing mental health services and the influences of providers, including burden, provider mental health status and caregiver type. The study is a cross-sectional and utilizes secondary analysis of the 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health of 3,986 children and adolescents ages 6-17 with mental health needs. To understand provider influences and their characteristics as it relates to the relationship between need and utilization of mental health services, a bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted (Grayson, 2016).
Results indicates that experienced providers who encounter some level of burden may likely utilize mental services than others who do not experience any burden. Providers that experience high level of burden will likely 15 times or more utilize mental health services (OR =13.70; 95% CI 10.58-17.74, p<0.001). Similarly, the caregivers that experience serious signs of depression or anxiety in their child or adolescent (OR=1.55; 95% CI 1.21-1.98; p<0.05) will tend to use the services more than the caregivers who experience mild or no sign of depression or anxiety. The mental health status of the caregiver is of no significance and has no influence on need and utilization (Grayson, 2016).
Teenagers in the age range of 14 to 17 are significant and are found to utilize mental health services more than the younger ones (OR=1.48; 95% CI1.16-1.89; p<0.05). African American children use mental health services more than the Caucasian Hispanic or other children (OR=0.59; 95% CI 0.38-0.91; p<0.05). The income and the caregivers have no influence on utilization. Furthermore, individuals with insurance coverage tend to use mental health services more than those without coverage (OR=1.88; 95% CI 1.22-2.64; p<0.05). The findings of this research indicate that providers are important for people to get mental health treatment for their loved ones; in addition, to how providers may be barriers to people with need. Furthermore, this study is promoting the need for more studies to include qualitative research to fully understand extra issues and challenges that providers and people face while trying to get mental health treatment (Grayson, 2016).
Similarly, in their 2015 research analysis, Augsberger, Yeung, Dougher, & Hahm (2015), analyzed the hidden barriers to accessing care and utilization of mental health for Asian American Women in the county. It showed that 299 women representing 43% of the participants have suffered from symptoms of depression or have had suicidal attempts. It examined the mismatch between available services and cultural needs, contribution of Asian society to mental health and contribution of Asian family to the stigma of mental health.
Hamilton, Desai, Hoot, Gearing, Jeong, Meyer, & Begley (2016), did research on the factors that affect mental healthcare access among African Americans. They identified one of the reasons to be low income and lack of awareness about the existing institutions that offer mental healthcare. Augsberger, Yeung, Dougher, & Hahm (2015), identified further issues that affect the accessibility of mental healthcare among Asian American women in the county. Accordingly, the authors concluded in their research that the Asian American women are suffering from depression and often were faced with the thoughts of suicide. According to the authors, Asian American women were stigmatized because of the mental health issues, and most of them do not want to come out and seek treatment.
Misra, S. M., Guffey, D., Roth, I., & Giardino, A. P. (2017) in their article “Complementary and Alternative Medicine use in Uninsured Children in Texas”, the authors describe the concept relating to the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for mental health treatment among children in this Southern State County. According to the authors, CAM use among US children stands at 12%. According to the 2012 National Health Interview Study. The research suggests that there are a number of uninsured population due to their limited access to care, which resulted in higher CAM use. A survey of 250 uninsured patients at various pediatric facilities in a free mobile clinic program showed a very high use by Hispanic population, their rate of CAM use in the last 12 months was close to 50% among children and 60% among parents. One Southern State has placed a lot of effort into improving the health care treatment of children; according to that 2012 research report conducted a study National Health Interview Study. Research study suggests that facilities that the services offered are inversely proportional to the allocation provided. Misra and the rest have concluded that this issue has raised a lot of concern since the mental health of the people remain to be very low despite the efforts implanted. Research showed that some institutions have released a lot of funds to run this sector. This research also showed that this Sothern State receive the second largest allocation for mental health.
Based on the data collected, a gap was identified regarding the factors that affect the utilization of Mental health facilities within the county. Various people within the mental healthcare profession have done research on some factors that may deter people from receiving mental healthcare. The literature on the mental health gap in the county has revealed major reasons as to why the gap exists. Stigmatization and low income are some reasons as to why the gap exists in the county.
|Criteria||Learner Self-Evaluation Score
|Chair or Score
|Background of the Problem
This section uses the literature to provide the reader with a definition and statement of the research gap and problem the study will address. This section further presents a brief historical perspective of when the problem started and how it has evolved over time.
The recommended length for this section is two-three paragraphs.
|1. Includes a brief discussion demonstrating how literature has established the gap and a clear statement informing the reader of the gap.||2|
|2. Discusses how the “need” or “defined gap” has evolved historically into the current problem or opportunity to be addressed by the proposed study (citing seminal and/or current research).||2|
|3. ALIGNMENT: The problem statement for the dissertation will be developed from and justified by the “need” or “defined gap” that is described in this section and supported by the empirical research literature published within the past 3-5 years.||2|
|4. Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.||2|
|NOTE: This Background of the Problem section uses information from the Literature Review in the 10 Strategic Points. This Background of the Problem section becomes the Background of the Study in Note, this section develops the foundation for Chapter 1 in the Proposal. It is then expanded to develop the comprehensive Background to the Problem section and Identification of the GAP sections in Chapter 2 (Literature Review) in the Proposal.|
Theoretical Foundations/Conceptual Framework and Review of the Literature/Themes
There is the need to understand the consequences of both effective utilization and non-utilization of mental health as it evolved historically. Mental health services in this Southern State has faced several challenges. Texas (2017) asserts that people suffering from mental illness still faces problems despite the huge costs that are directed towards the healthcare. Schwartz, (2017) in support of this Southern State argue that the increased growth-rate of populations in one specific county located in a Southern State has impacted the health sector at large. The high population together with economic constrains has led to few medical insurances which limits access to health. The access to, and utilization of mental health care for the populations living in this county has created a gap within the State (Children at Risk, 2013).
Review of the Literature
Empirical Approach: Emphasized the issues of underutilized mental health resources and non-institutionalized adults as behavioral risk factors in Southern Texas. Augsberger, Yeung, Dougher, & Hahm (2015) identified various issues such as the history of suicide thoughts and depression among the Asian American women, different cultural needs in this specific Southern State county.
There are identifying facts suggesting the factors that influence either utilization or under-utilization of mental health services among Asian American women with a history of depression and suicide in this county of research. There is also a mismatch between available services and cultural needs, contribution of Asian society to mental health and contribution of families to the stigma of mental health. It concluded and recommended that mental health utilization should not be low among all the cultures, but rather extremely encouraged especially among women in the county (Augsberger, Yeung, Dougher, & Hahm, 2015).
Similarly, Wang, & Xie, (2019) emphasizes the need to eliminate the prevalence of mental health service utilization among many adults in the United States. The authors examined the links between mental health service utilization, health insurance coverage, mental health problems and drug abuse, and the health disparities among communities. In 2013. the authors in conjunction with the National Survey on Drug Use and Health performed a research with 37,424 adults’ respondents, with the outcome that only 5,434 adults were receiving mental health services. The outcome of the research indicated statistics of overall prevalence of mental health services utilization to be around 15%, with the female and the aging population experiencing major depressive episodes, serious psychological distress, and illicit drug or alcohol abuse/dependence were positively associated with mental health service use. Insured African Americans, Asians and Hispanics, and married were negatively associated with mental health service utilization. Adults with varying types of insurances having disparities in accessing mental health services. (Wang, & Xie, 2019).
Boyer, C., Greenberg, L., Chutuape, K., Walker, B., Monte, D., Kirk, J., & Ellen, J. (2017). Exchange of sex for drugs or money in adolescents and young adults: An examination of sociodemographic factors, HIV-related risk, and community context. Journal of Community Health, 42(1), 90-100. doi:10.1007/s10900-016-0234-2
The purpose of this article is to carry out an assessment on maternal health and the well-being of the child and how it contributes to long term mental health. This mainly focuses on the anal stage especially when the child is born. It lays an emphasis on ensuring an understanding of basic but critical pediatric care. The result was that the hospital was able to ensure that it provides the pediatric care to the critical patients for 24 hours before and after birth. This is to make sure that young and divorced mothers know how to navigate and ensure the provision of proper mental care. Recommendations includes providing classes and courses that to the main practitioners on how to handle new parents and how to guide them into providing the required help to the children who are ill.
Goldman D., Robin R. W. & Chester B. (2018). Factors Influencing Utilization of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services by American Health Institutions
The purpose of this article is to study the impact that gender, the number of childhood victimization and psychiatric diagnoses has on the utilization of mental health patients in the Southwestern American Indian community. In its outcome and recommendations, the article declares these factors as the main contributors in the utilization of the substance abuse and mental health when one is coming up with proper treatment interventions.
Schwartz, A. (2017). A report on the demographic changes and changing needs of fort bend county University of Texas at Austin. doi:10.15781/T2MC8RZ1M
Ariel and Peter gave an analysis of how population growth has affected the health status of people living in this Southern State County. There have been different studies conducted to indicate the mental status of individuals living within the country. In the outcome of the research, this article laid emphasis on the fact that many people in the population are uninsured, and that the economic challenges that the large population is experiencing is responsible in part for what is influencing individuals’ decisions to not utilize Mental Health and the extent to which the community healthcare extends its services to every member. Recommendations include training and mentioning healthcare providers and caregivers on improvements that need to be done continually to ensure that the different needs of the growing population are met.
Review of the literature review identified the following themes:
· Lack of proper mental health education and infrastructure has been the major factor affecting the utilization of mental health. Goldman Robin & Chester (2018) in his research found out that women who had been exposed to sexual abuse and drug abuse formed the high numbers of people who utilize mental health services among the Hispanic and non-white people in the county. Augsberger, Yeung, Dougher, & Hahm, (2015) in support of this research argued that mental health services had been underutilized by Asian women living in this county, as a result of both cultural needs and mismatch of the services offered in the health facilities in this Southern State.
· Lack of medical insurance. Research has shown that many people due to poor economic status has left many people without health insurance as they cannot afford. This limits many average and lower-class families from accessing mental illness services (Children at Risk, 2013).
· Poor perception among the community members. Researchers reveals that many people who live in this county perceive child mental illness as a mere sign of hunger besides poor diets. This has left many people neglecting utilization of mental healthcare in the community (Children at Risk, 2013).
The theoretical model for this research gap is the Albert Bandura, Social Cognitive Theory. The Social Cognitive Theory: Examines the context of health promotion and disease prevention. It helps to describe how motivations in health and behaviors are influenced by the interaction people’s beliefs, environment, and behaviors. It was advocated by famous psychologists Albert Bandura (Morin, 2019).
Major components of the theory in relation to individual behavior change include:
· Self-efficacy: The belief that an individual has control over and is able to execute a behavior.
· Behavioral capability: Understanding and having the skill to perform a behavior.
· Expectations: Determining the outcomes of behavior change.
· Expectancies: Assigning a value to the outcomes of behavior change.
· Self-control: Regulating and monitoring individual behavior.
· Observational learning: Watching/observing outcomes of others performance or modeled behavior.
· Reinforcements: Promoting incentives and rewards that encourage behavior change (Eslami, Norozi, Hajihosseini, Ramazani, & Miri, 2018).
It is not known what is influencing individuals’ decision to not utilize mental health in the United States. It is not known how mental health providers describe the factors influencing individuals’ decision to utilize mental health services. While there are increasing mental health cases among the children in the county, the research topics seek to identify the key issues that prevent the people of this county from utilizing the mental health services and facilities.
Population of interest are the individuals living in this Southern State region. The study plans to use qualitative-descriptive-research design in carrying out the study with target on service providers in the county. The importance of the study is to ensure that individuals do not miss the opportunity of utilizing mental health services in the State including screening and evaluating patients and how to begin treatment if needed and the roles of primary caregivers in addressing behavioral health issues as part of the scopes of their work and those of social workers in addressing any or all issues relating to depression, anxiety and substance abuse.
Mental Health providers in the United States
Mental Health providers with membership of Mental Health Association in South Texas
The sample will be in South Texas of the United States
Out of a population of 12 Mental Health Providers
· Questionnaire: Minimum of 120
· Interviews: Minimum of 40 Mental Health providers
The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study is to examine how mental health providers describe the factors influencing individuals’ decision to utilize mental health services in South Texas. The purpose of the study is to come with the factors that either influence or deter the people in the State from accessing the much-needed mental healthcare. The study will employ a qualitative study that will target mental health providers within the State who are service providers that care for the mentally challenged, and compare factors impacting utilization and non-utilization of mental services available in the State. The study will make recommendation on how to improve the mental health accessibility in the State. It identified multiple factors that are associated with both the utilization and under-utilization of specialty mental health services among the people living in the State such as delays in observing and recognizing the symptoms and how to seek help, the absence of appropriate mental health providers, and lack of health insurance.
|Learner Self-Evaluation Score
|Chair or Score
|PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This section reflects what the study is about, connecting the problem statement, methodology & research design, target population, variables/phenomena, and geographic location.
The recommended length for this section is one paragraph.
|1. Begins with one sentence that identifies the research methodology and design, target population, variables (quantitative) or phenomena (qualitative) to be studied and geographic location.||1.5|
|Quantitative Studies : Defines the variables and relationship of variables.||1.5|
|Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.||1.5|
|NOTE: This section elaborates on information in the Purpose Statement from the 10 Strategic Points. This section becomes the foundation for the Purpose of the Study section in Chapter 1 and other Chapters where appropriate in the Proposal.|
The study is going to be a qualitative descriptive study that will involve psychiatrists, therapists, caregivers and service providers’ descriptions of what and why they feel people are not accessing mental health services and what must be done to change their behavior towards accessing the services. It entails utilizing interviews to collect data and to understand how successful it will be if professionals are learning more about the Fort Bend communities, and how they can contribute to improved learning outcomes.
The following research questions will help to guide this qualitative study:
· RQ1: How do mental health providers describe the influence of self-efficacy on individuals’ decision to utilize mental health services?
· RQ2: How do mental health providers describe the influence of behavioral capacity on individuals’ decision to utilize mental health services?
· RQ3: How do mental health providers describe the influence of expectations on individuals’ decision to utilize mental health services?
|Criteria||Learner Self-Evaluation Score
|Research Question(s) and/or Hypotheses
· The recommendation is a minimum of two research questions along with related hypotheses and variables is required for a quantitative study.
· Also recommended is a minimum of two research questions along with the phenomenon description is required for a qualitative study.
· Put the Research Questions in the appropriate Table in Appendix B based on whether the study is qualitative or quantitative.
The recommended length for this section is a list of research questions and associated hypotheses (quantitative)
|1. Qualitative Studies: States the research question(s) the study will answer and describes the phenomenon to be studied.
Quantitative Studies : States the research questions the study will answer, identifies and describes the variables, and states the hypotheses (predictive statements) using the format appropriate for the specific design and statistical analysis.
|Alignment: The research questions are based on both the Problem Statement and Theoretical Foundation model(s) or theory(s). There should be no research questions that are not clearly aligned to the Problem Statement.||2|
|Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.||2|
|NOTE: This section elaborates on the information about Research Questions) & Hypothesis/variables or Phenomena from the 10 Strategic Points. This section becomes the foundation for the Research Question(s) and/or Hypotheses section in Chapter 1 in the Proposal.|
The major objective of any health sector is to improve healthcare for the citizens regardless of the sickness. This Southern State has devoted a large share of its finances towards healthcare which has seen it shine on the national map. Despite this effort, statistics show that mental health accessibility in the State is still very low. This has been evidenced by numerous research findings. Lack of Insurance, professionals, infrastructure and education has been theorized as a major source of the problem. This project through qualitative descriptive research aims at finding the factors that affect utilization of mental healthcare and recommend better ways through which mental health utilization can be improved in the State.
The results of this research will add considerably to the results of other studies as it provides means by which prevention and intervention efforts will help to raise mental health awareness and the importance of utilizing mental health services among Americans as well as offer culturally sensitive services. The result would direct efforts and focus at reducing stigma that is associated with mental health problems in the minds of most people (Morin & Cherry, 2019). In addition, the results will help, and be of value to practitioners in determining the necessary strategies to be used to allow more individuals to receive the necessary health care services that they require. It will also help in eliminating the individualized beliefs that ties people from getting the public services they ought to and thus help them be more responsive to the services which are available to them.
Similarly, the result will enhance knowledge of social learning theory through observation and modeling as they both play significant and primary roles in this process, which moves far and beyond Albert Bandura’s behavioral theory, which suggests that all behaviors can or are learned through conditioning, and cognitive theories. Bandura’s social learning theory also proposed that learning also exist or develop simply by observing the actions of others (Morin & Cherry, 2019). Therefore, a learning condition like this may be used in explaining different behaviors, including those factors influencing individuals’ decision to either utilize or not utilize mental health.
The most appropriate methodology that will be used in answering the research questions, and which will also address the problem statement is a qualitative methodology (Colorafi, & Evans, 2016). The qualitative approach is very effective when a phenomenon that is being queried is properly and effectively defined, and this study has distinctly defined the phenomena of factors influencing the behavior and choices of people in a natural environment to utilize or not utilize Mental Health. The methodology is preferred as it is flexible when researching on health science topic to support various medical theories. This will support the research in finding and filling the gap in the study.
This methodology was adopted because it will help to provide real life evidences from the interview with participants. The literature has determined the causes of the low utilization of mental health in the South to include limitations to accessing health care. It also identified other barriers to specialty mental health care utilization (Augsberger, Yeung, Dougher, & Hahm, 2015).
· Interviews and Questionnaires will be used to gather accurate information
· Data will be obtained to determine the health seeking behavior and mental health patients/services in the State
The design for this piece of research work will be a qualitative descriptive study that will collect information from service providers in the State, which is aimed at identifying the specific issues that are deterring the utilization of mental healthcare facilities in this South. Qualitative descriptive is the most appropriate design selected because it helps to describe how mental health providers and mental health professionals the factors influencing individuals’ decision to utilize mental health services. (Kim et al., 2017) This method is also justified as it applies the description of the factors in play and how they affect the outcome. According to Kim, Sefcik, & Bradway (2017), a qualitative-descriptive research is descriptive in nature and helps in describing a natural phenomenon. This method is suitable in research as it will provide a description of factors limiting utilization of mental healthcare in the county. Literature also supports the facts that issues of underutilized mental health resources and non-institutionalized adults is a behavioral risk factor in South (Hamilton, Desai, Hoot, Gearing, Jeong, Meyer, & Begley, 2016).
After analysis of the population group, 12 Mental Health Providers were determined to suffice as a sample group. The respondents will be chosen among the mental health providers with membership of Mental Health Association in South Texas, which will include focus groups of service providers’ that will form the sample population. Study area for the research will be caregivers, psychiatrists, and therapists’ offices, and counseling facilities within the State. A structured system of interviews with a minimum of 120 questionnaires and a minimum of 40 mental health providers, which will be used as the primary source of data. The data will be collected in a period of three weeks with each respondent given 30 minutes for the interview and filing the questionnaire. Data will be collected for the study using interviews and questionnaires. Notes will be taken; interviews will be tape recorded and documented properly. Mental health providers with membership in Mental Health Associations will be the main participants in the study based on 5 years’ experience and the willingness to be interviewed. Providers would be selected to complete questionnaire forms that will include basic demographic questionnaire, which will be used based on their experiences.
· Consent form will be sent and obtained with signatures
· The selected participants will submit the consent forms and complete the interview using Zoom.
· Data will be Collected using a Google form
· Mental health providers/participants names will be removed from the data
· Descriptive statistics will be used in summarizing acquired data.
· Coding will be used to address questions posed and the transcribed interviews and coded data will also be stored on a backup USB thumb drive
· Data will remain stored on the researcher’s computer with password encrypted.
The phenomenon under testing is to understand why and factors influencing individuals’ decision to utilize Mental Health in one Southern State. Notable factors are:
· There is a high rate of mental health conditions in Southern Texas
· Individuals living in South Texas utilizes very low budget allocation on funding of mental health care
· Cost is a factor impacting the population’s utilization of mental health services
The interview will utilize structured questionnaires developed by the researcher to uncover the phenomena at hand in addition to face-face interviews for the research that will be structured with questions that require answers on the reasons that causes people to utilize mental health services as well as the hesitation in receiving treatment among the individuals who require mental health treatment. The initial collection of data would involve getting a list of mental health providers who are members of Mental Health Organizations including:
· Mental Health America (MHA)
· National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
· National Alliance on Mental Health (NAMI)
· National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
Providers would be selected to complete questionnaire forms that include basic demographic questionnaire, which will be based on their experiences. Tools will be used in collecting primary data, while the selected group will be composed of service providers. A tape-recorded analysis will also be used within the focus groups. Furthermore, the research will take note of the factors that providers think can improve the mental health accessibility in the State.
|Criterion Score||Learner Self-Evaluation Score
|Chair or Score
|RESEARCH MATERIALS, INSTRUMENTATION, OR SOURCES OF DATA
This section identifies and describes the types of data that will be collected, as well as the specific research materials, instruments, and sources used to collect those data (tests, surveys, validated instruments, questionnaires, interview protocols, databases, media, etc.).
The recommended length for this section is one to two paragraphs. Note: this section can be set up as a bulleted list.
|Quantitative- Instruments/Research Materials :
Provides a bulleted list of the instrumentation and/or materials for data collection.
Describes the survey instruments or equipment/materials used (experimental research) and specifies the type and level of data collected with each instrument.
Includes citations from original publications by instrument developers (and subsequent users as appropriate) or related studies.
|Qualitative – Sources of Data:
Describes the structure of each data collection instrument and data sources (tests, questionnaires, interview protocols, observations databases, media, etc.).
|Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.||1|
NOTE: This section elaborates on the Data Collection from the 10 Strategic Points.
This information is summarized high level in Chapter 1 in the Proposal in the Nature of the Research Design for the Study section. This section provides the foundation for Research Materials, Instrumentation (quantitative) or Sources of Data (qualitative) section in Chapter 3.
Approval from the dean of student’s affairs at Grand Canyon University’s IRB committee will be sought and obtained before starting the process of data collection. The process will begin by writing a letter to the dean to get permission. After the IRB committee gives its approval for the project to begin, participants will be selected. The study sample is set to include caregivers, service providers, psychiatrists, therapists, school counselors and members of the community. Data collection will only start after candidates must have acknowledged and signed the consent form. The informed consent form will be written in simple language that is easily understood by the participants, it will not contain anything that will signal coercion or undue influence, and the participants will be given enough time to consider their participation. Furthermore, the dissertation will collect information from a selected group of providers to provide primary data.
We will communicate with the sample group and allocate everyone specified time that they are free and then will follow up to ensure that all the sample members are included. Moreover, the researcher will ensure that the providers who are to receive questionnaires are directly contacted to make sure that they receive and fill out the questionnaire then send them back. It will be collected systematically in a way that begins with interviewing the service providers. The process will be as follows:
· Respondents will be 12 mental health providers given questionnaires to fill.
· Interviews will involve the 12 respondents from within the State.
· Respondents will respond to both interviews and the questionnaires.
· Manual coding will be done to all collected data.
· Data will be checked for any errors by both parties before further processing.
· Data will be entered into SciLab for analysis.
Data Analysis Procedures
Data analysis will be conducted using descriptive statistics, followed by its transcription from the tape recorder, then analysis will be performed based on interviews and focus groups. Data collected will first be manually coded in relation to the themes of the study. The coded themes will then be analyzed, and explanations given. The overall aim of the analysis will be to find factors influencing individuals’ decision to not utilize Mental Health in one Southern State County. At the initial starting stage, individual interviews will be conducted, recorded and transcribed verbatim. This will be followed by the researcher repeatedly reading and listening to the content in order to get familiarized with it. As such, the researcher will be able to gain deeper and better familiarization with the contents; he or she will also identify the answers to those questions asked as well as identify the themes. The researcher will use the two theories selected to see if the themes from the interviews align with the theoretical framework.
· Data will be collected and analyzed for the study.
· Descriptive statistics will be used in summarizing acquired data.
· Coding will be used to address the questions posed.
· A narrative summary will be developed.
· demographic information
· years of experience
The researcher may choose to adopt the process notes and MAXDQA in organizing and visualizing data. According to Braun and Clarke (2006), the following six-step thematic analysis process is effective in identifying the relevant patterns in data.
· Stage 1: Get familiarized with the data: the researcher is expected to already get familiarized with the contents of the research and have a better understanding of it. This is because the researcher is the individual that will collect the data.
· Stage 2: Generate first codes regarding the significant ideas discovered in the data. Identifications of data and combining pertinent data relating to each code
· Stage 3: This stage allows the researcher to start the search for themes through analysis and a review of the codes and to understand those that can be developed into acceptable themes.
· Stage 4: Reviewing and refining the themes and determining if there is any of them that needs to be removed, combined, or if they can be broken down into additional themes.
· Stage 5: Define and name the themes after refining them.
· Phase 6: Generate the final report by the researcher.
Once the researcher is familiar with the data by reading through the data and looking for patterns, he will develop a detailed description of the phenomenon from the synthesis of the data
|Criteria||Learner Self-Evaluation Score
|Chair or Score
|DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURES
This section provides detailed steps for the analytic procedures to be used to conduct data analysis.
The recommended length for this section is one to two paragraphs, can also be presented in bulleted format.
|Describes in detail the relevant data collected for each stated research question and/or each variable within each hypothesis (if applicable).
Quantitative Studies: “In detail” means scales (and subscales) of specified instruments AND type of data for each variable of interest. IMPORTANT: For (quasi) experimental studies, provide detailed description of all treatment materials per treatment condition, as part of the description of the independent variable corresponding to the experimental manipulation.
|What: Describes, in detail, statistical and non-statistical analysis to be used and procedures used to conduct the data analysis.
Quantitative Studies: (1) describe data file preparation (descriptive statistics used to check completeness and accuracy; for files from different sources, possibly aggregating data to obtain a common unit of analysis in all files, necessarily merging files (using the key variable defining the unit of analysis); (2) computation of statistics for the sample profile; (3) computation of (subscales and) scales; (4) reliability analysis for all scales and subscales; (5) computation of descriptive statistics for all variables of interest in the study (except those already presented in the sample profile); (6) state and justify all statistical procedures (“tests”) needed to generate the information to answer all research questions; and (7) state assumptions checks for all those statistical procedures (including the tests and / or charts to be computed).
Qualitative Studies: This section begins by identifying and discussing the specific analysis approach or strategy, followed by a discussion of coding procedures to be used. Note: coding procedures may be different for Thematic Analysis, Narrative Analysis, Phenomenological Analysis, or Grounded Theory Analysis.
|Why: Provides the justification for each of the (statistical and non-statistical) data analysis procedures used in the study.||2|
|Show Steps that Support Evidence
Quantitative Analysis – states the level of statistical significance for each test as appropriate and describes tests of assumptions for each statistical test.
Qualitative Analysis – evidence of qualitative analysis approach, such as coding and theming process, must be completely described and included the analysis /interpretation process. Clear evidence from how codes moved to themes must be presented.
|NOTE: This section elaborates on the Data Analysis from the 10 Strategic Points. This section provides the foundation for Data Analysis Procedures section in Chapter 3 in the Proposal.
Before the commencement of the study, I will seek authorization form all the relevant bodies including the IRB for approval. The research will also seek authority from the University board for conducting the research. All the data collected will be purely used for research purposes and remain confidential. The data will remain free to withdrawal by respondents from the study. No personal name or organizational names which may bring conflict of interest in the research will be included. The research will remain in the custody of the University will all rights reserved. Additionally, only relevant data will be collected by the researcher, solely for the study. He or she must stay clear of any subjectivity in analyzing the data and must also be proactive at preventing anything that will be harmful to the participants.
|Criteria||Learner Self-Evaluation Score
|Chair or Score
This section discusses the potential ethical issues surrounding the research, as well as how human subjects and data will be protected. It identifies how any potential ethical issues will be addressed.
The recommended length for this section is one paragraph.
|1. Describes site authorization process, subject recruiting, and informed consent processes.||2|
|2. Describes how the identities of the participants in the study and data will be protected.||2|
|3. Discusses potential ethical concerns that might occur during the data collection process.||2|
|4. ALIGNMENT: Ethical considerations are clearly aligned with and relate directly to the specific Data Collection Procedures. This section also identifies ethical considerations related to the target population being researched and organization or location as described in the Purpose Statement section.||2|
|NOTE: This section does not include information from any of the 10 Strategic Points.
This section provides the foundation for Ethical Considerations section in Chapter 3 in the Proposal.
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10 Strategic Points
Demographics of the participants
|Sample Population||12 Mental Health Providers in United States|
|Questionnaire||Minimum of 120|
|Interviews||Minimum of 40 Mental Health providers in the South|
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