Discussion: Validity in Quantitative Research Designs

Discussion: Validity in Quantitative Research Designs

Discussion: Validity in Quantitative Research Designs

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Validity in research refers to the extent researchers can be confident that the cause and effect they identify in their research are in fact causal relationships. If there is low validity in a study, it usually means that the research design is flawed and the results will be of little or no value. Four different aspects of validity should be considered when reviewing a research design: statistical conclusion validity, internal validity, construct validity, and external validity. In this Discussion, you consider the importance of each of these aspects in judging the validity of quantitative research. Discussion: Validity in Quantitative Research Designs

To prepare:

  • Review the information in Chapter 10 of the course text on rigor and validity.
  • Read the method section of one of the following quasi-experimental studies (also located in this week’s Learning Resources). Identify one potential concern that could be raised about the study’s internal validity.
    • Metheny, N. A., Davis-Jackson, J., & Stewart, B. J. (2010). Effectiveness of an aspiration risk-reduction protocol. Nursing Research, 59(1), 18–25.
    • Padula, C. A., Hughes, C., & Baumhover, L. (2009). Impact of a nurse-driven mobility protocol on functional decline in hospitalized older adults. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 24(4)325–331.
    • Yuan, S., Chou, M., Hwu, L., Chang, Y., Hsu, W., & Kuo, H. (2009). An intervention program to promote health-related physical fitness in nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18(10),1,404–1,411.
  • Consider strategies that could be used to strengthen the study’s internal validity and how this would impact the three other types of validity.
  • Think about the consequences of an advanced practice nurse neglecting to consider the validity of a research study when reviewing the research for potential use in developing an evidence-based practice.

By Day 3

Post the title of the study that you selected and your analysis of the potential concerns that could be raised about the study’s internal validity. Propose recommendations to strengthen the internal validity and assess the effect your changes could have with regard to the other three types of validity. Discuss the dangers of failing to consider the validity of a research study.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses. Discussion: Validity in Quantitative Research Designs

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, and evidence.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own review of the literature in the Walden Library. Discussion: Validity in Quantitative Research Designs
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional sources.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

2 post of Colleagues to respond to posted below

Response 1

Evaluating the validity of quantitative research is essential to ensure the information being reported is accurate and reliable. Being able to prove the dependent variable has been affected by the identified independent variable and not by other factors is proving validity. Choosing the research design that provides the highest quality of data and being aware of potential confounding variables will prove academic rigor(Polit & Beck, 2017).

In the article Impact of a Nurse-Driven Mobility Protocol on Functional Decline in Hospitalized Older Adults (Padula, Hughes, & Baumhover, 2009), I feel the authors failed to prove validity in several ways. Firstly, I do not feel the size, selection of participants, or homogeneity of the groups was sufficient to provide a varied sample. The patient placed in restraints and the three patients from the nursing homes should have been excluded as this was outside of the norm. The study did not specify if the seven patients from assisted living were evenly dispersed on the two units so this also could have biased the results.

The lower fall risk score of the control group suggested overall better mobility. Although the treatment group was stated to have ambulated in the hall earlier and more frequently than the control group, the article stated “it seemed that patients on the control unit were out of bed every day that they were hospitalized” which appears to be contradictory information. The control group was out of bed to chair and ambulated in room more frequently that the intervention group which suggests inconsistent implementation of the independent variable. Discussion: Validity in Quantitative Research Designs

The length of stay was also shorter for the control group but there was no indications of the severity of either the reason for admission or the comorbid conditions. Prognosis was also not discussed as a factor. Humanism, the act of personal choice and motivation in these conditions could potentially have affected the results of the study. Pathology interferes with a person’s coping skills and how quickly they can regain their psychological balance can influence physical recovery (Schutz, Rivers, & Ratusnik, 2008). Discussion: Validity in Quantitative Research Designs

I believe this study should be repeated with a larger sample size and over a longer period of time. This could address some of the concerns with the validity of the results. Involving several hospitals could produce the data needed to ensure more balanced cohort groups.

References

Padula, C. A., Hughes, C., & Baumhover, L. (2009). Impact of a nurse-driven mobility protocol on functional decline in hospitalized older adults, 325.

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2017). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

Schutz, L. E., Rivers, K. O., & Ratusnik, D. L. (2008). The role of external validity in evidence-based practice for rehabilitation. Rehabilitation Psychology, 53(3), 294-302. doi:10.1037/a0012923

Response 2

Polit and Beck describe strategies for enhancing the rigor of quantitative studies, including ways to minimize biases and control confounding variables. Many of these strategies help to strengthen the inferences that can be made about cause-and-effect relationships. In designing a study, it is very important and useful to anticipate the factors that may undermine the validity of inferences. It is important to understand that validity is a property of an inference, not of a research design, but design elements which directly affect the inferences that can be made. When researchers introduce design features to minimize potential threats, the validity of the inference in strengthened, and with this, the evidence is more persuasive. (Polit, Beck. 2017)

I chose “An intervention program to promote health-related physical fitness in nurses.” Journal of Clinical Nursing, Yuan, S., Chou, M., Hwu, L., Chang, Y., Hsu, W., & Kuo, H. (2009). For this experiment 90 nurses from 5 different units were chosen to take part in an exercise program. There were some in a control group and some in an experimental group. The experimental group was required to take part in a three month intervention program consisting of a treadmill regimen. Both groups were assessed before and after the experiment.

Before the intervention, the control group had much better durability of abdominal muscles, flexibility, and better grasp strength than the experimental group. Logistic regression was used to factor in work duration, marital status, regular exercise, and work load. This found that the experimental group did way better.

The experiment concluded that that implementation and development of an intervention program as such may improve and promote health-related physical fitness of nurses. If nurses engage in a regular exercise program while in the work environment, not only improves work efficiency, but may alos lower the risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). (Yuan, S., Chou, M., Hwu, L., Chang, Y., Hsu, W., & Kuo, H. 2009).

Beck, C. T., & Polit, D. F. (2017). Nursing research generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (Tenth ed., pp. 32-34). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

An intervention program to promote health-related physical fitness in nurses.” Journal of Clinical Nursing, Yuan, S., Chou, M., Hwu, L., Chang, Y., Hsu, W., & Kuo, H. (2009)

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