Assignment: How the theorist in the four major Psychological theories explain the role in learning

Assignment: How the theorist in the four major Psychological theories explain the role in learning

Assignment: How the theorist in the four major Psychological theories explain the role in learning


Discussion 1: The school does not allow me to download the video but I have 3 modules I will attach chapter 5, 6 and 8. You can discuss, elaborate and give examples on the question (How the theorist in the four major Psychological theories explain the role in learning?

Author: Schunk, D. H. (2016). Learning theories: An educational perspective. Boston: Pearson Education. Assignment: How the theorist in the four major Psychological theories explain the role in learning

1.Watch the following videos in this week’s Electronic Reserve Readings: “Memory Processes,” “Storage and Recall,” “Study of Memory,” “Stages of Memory,” “Amnesia and the PDP Model,” and “Memory and Changes in the Brain”. How do theorists in the four major psychological theories explain the role of memory in learning? 200 words

2.Define and provide a research example of each of the following: shaping and chaining, reinforcement schedules, and one-trial learning. 200 words

3.Review this week’s course materials and learning activities, and reflect on your learning so far this week. Respond to one or more of the following prompts in one to two paragraphs: 200 words

a) Provide citation and reference to the material(s) you discuss. Describe what you found interesting regarding this topic, and why.


b) Describe how you will apply that learning in your daily life, including your work life.


c) Describe what may be unclear to you, and what you would like to learn

Chapter 8 Week 3 Module

Chapter 8 Constructivism

Ms. Rahn, a sixth-grade middle school science teacher, is sitting at a table with four students. They are about to perform an experiment on the physical properties of matter called the “mystery substance experiment.” On the table are the following materials: mixing bowl, 16 ounces of cornstarch, measuring cup, bottles of water, spoon, scissors, plate, and paper towels. Assignment: How the theorist in the four major Psychological theories explain the role in learning

Ms. Rahn: Okay, we’re ready to begin. Jenna, empty the box of cornstarch into the bowl. Can you tell me, what do you notice about the cornstarch? What does it look like?
Trevor: It’s soft and powdery.
Ali: It’s whiteish.
Ms. Rahn: Touch it with your fingers. What does it feel like? Does it have an odor?
Matt: It’s soft, sort of flaky like. No odor.
Ms. Rahn: Yes, all of those things. Okay now, Trevor, fill the measuring cup with one cup of water and slowly pour it into the bowl. Put your hand inside the bowl and mix it up. What does it feel like?
Trevor: Clumpy, wet, gooey.
Ms. Rahn: What does it look like?
Ali: Like a paste or something like that.
Ms. Rahn: Yes, it does. Now reach down into the bowl and grab a bunch of it. Let it rest in your hand. What happens to it?
Matt: It’s dripping down.
Ms. Rahn: Pick up a handful and squeeze it. What does it feel like?
Jenna: It gets hard, but it’s still gooey.
Ms. Rahn: What happens to the liquid oozing out?
Ali: It’s dripping down through my fingers.
Ms. Rahn: Grab another handful and give it a squeeze. Let it rest in your hand. As some falls between your fingers, have your partner try cutting it with a scissors. Can you cut it?
Trevor: Yes! That’s so weird!
Ms. Rahn: Take a spoonful and drop it onto the plate. Touch it. What does it feel like?
Ali: Hard! Like silly putty.
Ms. Rahn: Tip the plate sideways. What happens?
Jenna: It’s dripping like water. But it doesn’t feel wet!
Ms. Rahn: Poke it with your finger. What happens? Assignment: How the theorist in the four major Psychological theories explain the role in learning
Matt: It goes in but it doesn’t stick to my finger.
Ms. Rahn: Now go back to the bowl. Push your fingers slowly through until you touch the bottom of the bowl. What do you notice? Assignment: How the theorist in the four major Psychological theories explain the role in learning
Jenna: It gets thicker as you go deeper. It feels hard.
Ms. Rahn: So what is this substance? Is it a solid or a liquid?
Ali: It’s a solid. It’s hard.
Matt: No, it’s a liquid because when you lift it, it drips and gooey stuff comes out.
Ms. Rahn: Could it be both a liquid and a solid?
Trevor: I think it is.

Constructivism  is a psychological and philosophical perspective contending that individuals form or construct much of what they learn and understand (O’Donnell,  2012 ). A major influence on constructivism is theory and research in human development, especially the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky (discussed in this chapter). The emphasis that these theories place on the role of knowledge construction is central to constructivism. Assignment: How the theorist in the four major Psychological theories explain the role in learning

Over the past several years, constructivism increasingly has been applied to learning and teaching. The history of learning theory reveals a shift away from environmental influences and toward human factors as explanations for learning. Cognitive theorists and researchers ( Chapters 4  7 ) disputed the claim of behaviorism ( Chapter 3 ) that stimuli, responses, and consequences were adequate to explain learning. Cognitive theories place great emphasis on learners’ information processing as a central cause of learning. Despite the elegance of cognitive learning theories, some researchers believe that these theories fail to capture the complexity of human learning. This point is underscored by the fact that some cognitive perspectives use behavioral terminology such as the “automaticity” of performance and “forming connections” between items in memory. Assignment: How the theorist in the four major Psychological theories explain the role in learning

Many contemporary learning researchers have shifted toward a stronger focus on learners. Rather than talk about how knowledge is acquired, they speak of how it is constructed. Although these researchers differ in their emphasis on factors that affect learning and learners’ cognitive processes, the theoretical perspectives they espouse may be loosely grouped and referred to as  constructivism . Learners’ constructions of understandings are evident in the opening vignette. Assignment: How the theorist in the four major Psychological theories explain the role in learning

This chapter begins by providing an overview of constructivism including a description of its key assumptions and the different types of constructivist theories. The theories of Piaget, Bruner, and Vygotsky are described next, with emphasis on those aspects relevant to learning. The critical roles of private speech and socially mediated learning are explained. The chapter concludes with a discussion of constructivist learning environments and instructional applications that reflect principles of constructivism. Assignment: How the theorist in the four major Psychological theories explain the role in learning

When you finish studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

· ■ Discuss the major assumptions and various types of constructivism.

· ■ Summarize the major processes in Piaget’s theory that are involved in learning and some implications for instruction.

· ■ Discuss the types of knowledge representation proposed by Bruner and what is meant by the “spiral curriculum.”

· ■ Explain the key principles of Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory and implications for teaching in the zone of proximal development.

· ■ Explain how private speech can affect learning and the benefits of socially mediated learning.

· ■ List the key features of constructivist learning environments and the major components of the APA learner-centered principles.

· ■ Explain how teachers can become more reflective and thereby enhance student achievement.

· ■ Describe how discovery learning, inquiry teaching, and discussions and debates can be structured to reflect constructivist principles.


Many researchers and practitioners question some of classic information processing theory’s assumptions about learning and instruction because they believe that these assumptions do not completely explain students’ learning and understanding. These questionable assumptions of the classic view are as follows (Greeno,  1989 ):

· ■ Thinking resides in the mind rather than in interaction with persons and situations.

· ■ Processes of learning and thinking are relatively uniform across persons, and some situations foster higher-order thinking better than others.

· ■ Thinking derives from knowledge and skills developed in formal instructional settings more than on general conceptual competencies that result from one’s experiences and innate abilities.

Constructivists do not accept these assumptions because of evidence that thinking takes place in situations and that cognitions are largely constructed by individuals as a function of their experiences in these situations (Bredo,  1997 ). Constructivist accounts of learning and development highlight the contributions of individuals to what is learned.  Social constructivist  models further emphasize the importance of social interactions in acquisition of skills and knowledge. Let us examine further what constructivism is, its assumptions, and its forms.


What Is Constructivism?

There is a lack of consensus about the meaning of constructivism (Harlow, Cummings, & Aberasturi,  2006 ). Strictly speaking, constructivism is not a theory but rather an  epistemology , or philosophical explanation about the nature of learning (Hyslop-Margison & Strobel,  2008 ; Simpson,  2002 ). A theory is a scientifically valid explanation for learning ( Chapter 1 ). Theories allow for hypotheses to be generated and tested. Constructivism does not propound that learning principles exist and are to be discovered and tested, but rather that learners create their own learning. Readers who are interested in exploring the historical and philosophical roots of constructivism are referred to Bredo ( 1997 ) and Packer and Goicoechea ( 2000 ).

Nonetheless, constructivism makes general predictions that can be tested. Although these predictions are general and open to different interpretations (i.e., what does it mean that learners construct their own learning?), they can be the focus of research.

Constructivist theorists reject the notion that scientific truths exist and await discovery and verification. They argue that no statement can be assumed as true but rather should be viewed with reasonable doubt. The world can be mentally constructed in many different ways, so no theory has a lock on the truth. This is true even for constructivism: There are many varieties, and no one version should be assumed to be more correct than any other (Simpson,  2002 ).

Rather than viewing knowledge as truth, constructivists construe it as a working hypothesis. Knowledge is not imposed from outside people but rather formed inside them. A person’s constructions are true to that person but not necessarily to anyone else. This is because people produce knowledge based on their beliefs and experiences in situations (Cobb & Bowers,  1999 ), which differ from person to person. All knowledge, then, is subjective and personal and a product of our cognitions (Simpson,  2002 ). Learning is situated in contexts (Bredo,  2006 ).


Constructivism highlights the interaction of persons and situations in the acquisition and refinement of skills and knowledge (Cobb & Bowers,  1999 ). Constructivism contrasts with conditioning theories that stress the influence of the environment on the person as well as with information processing theories that place the locus of learning within the mind with less attention to the context in which it occurs. Constructivism shares with social cognitive theory the assumption that persons, behaviors, and environments interact in reciprocal fashion (Bandura,  1986  1997 ).

A key assumption of constructivism is that people are active learners and develop knowledge for themselves (Simpson,  2002 ). To understand material well, learners must discover the basic principles, as the students in the opening vignette were striving to do. Constructivists differ in the extent to which they ascribe this function entirely to learners. Some believe that mental structures come to reflect reality, whereas others (radical constructivists) believe that the individual’s mental world is the only reality. Constructivists also differ in how much they ascribe the construction of knowledge to social interactions with teachers, peers, parents, and others (Bredo,  1997 ).

Many of the principles, concepts, and ideas discussed in this text reflect the idea of constructivism, including cognitive processing, expectations, values, and perceptions of self and others. Thus, although constructivism seems to be a recent arrival on the learning scene, its basic premise that learners construct understandings underlies many learning principles. This is the epistemological aspect of constructivism. Some constructivist ideas are not as well developed as those of other theories discussed in this text, but constructivism has affected theory and research in learning and development.

Constructivism also has influenced educational thinking about curriculum and instruction. It underlies the emphasis on the integrated curriculum in which students study a topic from multiple perspectives. For example, in studying hot-air balloons, students might read about them, write about them, learn new vocabulary words, visit one (hands-on experience), study the scientific principles involved, draw pictures of them, and learn songs about them. Constructivist ideas also are found in many professional standards and affect the design of curriculum and instruction, such as the learner-centered principles developed by the American Psychological Association (discussed later).

Another constructivist assumption is that teachers should not teach in the traditional sense of delivering instruction to a group of students. Rather, they should structure situations such that learners become actively involved with content through manipulation of materials and social interaction. How the teacher in the opening vignette structured the lesson allowed students to construct their understandings of what was happening. Activities include observing phenomena, collecting data, generating and testing hypotheses, and working collaboratively with others. Classes visit sites outside of the classroom. Teachers from different disciplines plan the curriculum together. Students are taught to be self-regulated learners by setting goals, monitoring and evaluating progress, and going beyond basic requirements by exploring interests (Bruning, Schraw, & Norby,  2011 ).

Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100
Use the following coupon code :