Advanced Levels of Clinical Inquiry and Systematic Reviews Presentation

Advanced Levels of Clinical Inquiry and Systematic Reviews Presentation

Advanced Levels of Clinical Inquiry and Systematic Reviews Presentation


Your quest to purchase a new car begins with an identification of the factors important to you. As you conduct a search of cars that rate high on those factors, you collect evidence and try to understand the extent of that evidence. A report that suggests a certain make and model of automobile has high mileage is encouraging. But who produced that report? How valid is it? How was the data collected, and what was the sample size?

In this Assignment, you will delve deeper into clinical inquiry by closely examining your PICO(T) question. You also begin to analyze the evidence you have collected.

To Prepare:

  • Review the Resources and identify a clinical issue of interest that can form the basis of a clinical inquiry. Advanced Levels of Clinical Inquiry and Systematic Reviews Presentation
  • Develop a PICO(T) question to address the clinical issue of interest you identified in Module 2 for the Assignment. This PICOT question will remain the same for the entire course.
  • Use the key words from the PICO(T) question you developed and search at least four different databases in the Walden Library. Identify at least four relevant systematic reviews or other filtered high-level evidence, which includes meta-analyses, critically-appraised topics (evidence syntheses), critically-appraised individual articles (article synopses). The evidence will not necessarily address all the elements of your PICO(T) question, so select the most important concepts to search and find the best evidence available.
  • Reflect on the process of creating a PICO(T) question and searching for peer-reviewed research.

The Assignment (Evidence-Based Project)

Part 2: Advanced Levels of Clinical Inquiry and Systematic Reviews

Create a 6- to 7-slide PowerPoint presentation in which you do the following:

  • Identify and briefly describe your chosen clinical issue of interest.
  • Describe how you developed a PICO(T) question focused on your chosen clinical issue of interest.
  • Identify the four research databases that you used to conduct your search for the peer-reviewed articles you selected.
  • Provide APA citations of the four relevant peer-reviewed articles at the systematic-reviews level related to your research question. If there are no systematic review level articles or meta-analysis on your topic, then use the highest level of evidence peer reviewed article.
  • Describe the levels of evidence in each of the four peer-reviewed articles you selected, including an explanation of the strengths of using systematic reviews for clinical research. Be specific and provide examples.


Matrix Worksheet Template

Matrix Worksheet Template


Use this document to complete Part 2 of the Module 2 Assessment, Evidence-Based Project, Part 1: An Introduction to Clinical Inquiry and Part 2: Research Methodologies



Full citation of selected article Article #1 Article #2 Article #3 Article #4
(Despotovic, et al., 2020)


(Loftus, et al., 2018)  (Grayson, et al., 2018)  (Munoz-Figueroa & Ojo, 2018)
Why you chose this article and/or how it relates to the clinical issue of interest (include a brief explanation of the ethics of research related to your clinical issue of interest) I picked this article because it focuses on the issue of interest, Hospital-acquired infections. The article relates to the topic at hand by focusing on HAIs, particularly in the intensive care unit. It analyzes the different ways patients are predisposed to infections and the adverse impacts of the infections on their health and wellbeing. It is critical to protect the privacy of research participants.


I chose this article as it focuses on the risk of acquiring infections in the operating room. It highlights the impact of awareness of pathogen transmissions in the clinical setting. In particular, it focuses on the risk of transmission of Staphylococcus Aureus when operating on patients. Research ethics in this case include autonomy beneficence, justice, and non-maleficence.


I chose this article because of its lengthy research on the clinical issue of interest that ran for eight years beginning 2009 to 2017. The article relates to the issue of interest as it focuses on hand hygiene as a way of reducing healthcare-associated infections. The ethics of research related to medicine focus on protecting patients. This article was ideal for this research because it analyzes Healthcare-Associated Infections from a public health concern perspective. It focuses on some of the most common infections that one can acquire in a health setting, including urinary tract, surgical, and respiratory infections. Research ethics require that patients are not exposed to any sort of harm.
Brief description of the aims of the research of each peer-reviewed article The study aimed to analyze the Hospital-acquired infections that patients in an adult ICU setting are predisposed to. The article was also keen on identifying the particular risk factors that heighten their chances of acquiring HAIs. Finally, it analyzes the risk of mortality that the HAIs pose for adult patients in the ICU.


The primary aim of the research was to characterize the high-risk Staphylococcus epidemiology in intraoperative transmission. The study was also keen on the ways hospitals can reduce the cases of surgical site infections by improving hand hygiene to decolonize staph Aureus before operation. The study aimed to evaluate how effective the National Hand Hygiene Initiative implemented in Australia was in reducing the cases of healthcare-associated Staphylococcus Aureus. It, therefore, analyzed the effectiveness of the initiative as well as the impacts of hand hygiene compliance in reducing the spread of infections in a clinical setting. This study sought to evaluate available evidence regarding the use of alcohol-based gel to control infections in the clinical setting. The alcohol-based gel is used for hand sanitizing to curb the likelihood of nurses spreading infections among patients. The study analyzes how effective this is in curbing HAIs.
Brief description of the research methodology used Be sure to identify if the methodology used was qualitative, quantitative, or a mixed-methods approach. Be specific. The research methodology that was used in this study is quantitative. It involved a large sample size of 355 patients. The researchers examined patient characteristics, risk factors, antimicrobial resistance patterns, and mortality predictors of patients with HAI. The quantitative research methodology was used in this article. It involved the analysis of isolated Staphylococcus Aureus species from three distinct centers. The samples were randomly collected using a computer-generated system. The study embraced a quantitative longitudinal method of research. This research method is uncommon as it was used for a lengthy period of eight years, analyzing the extent of compliance and the impacts of compliance in controlling the infection. This study embraced the qualitative research method. It analyzed reliable literature on how effective alcohol-based gels are in reducing the risk of spreading infections. It used recently published data.
A brief description of the strengths of each of the research methodologies used, including reliability and validity of how the methodology was applied in each of the peer-reviewed articles you selected. This research methodology involved patients that were hospitalized in 2 years. In addition to this, the fact that 355 patients were involved in the study, increased the study’s reliability and validity. The key strength is not in the number of participants but in the period of the study, thus accounting for changes over the two years.


This research methodology was random, thus reducing the chances of bias. A large sample size was also used, thus being a likely representation of a large population. The results were, therefore, likely to be valid and reliable. The conceptual framework also offered some possible actions moving forward. One of the strengths of this methodology was that it included data from a wide population thus making it valid and reliable. Additionally, it involved the assessment of compliance data for inconsistencies and errors, thus making it more accurate. The study uses recently published data and utilizes the EBP steps. It also applies data from numerous articles that are relevant to the topic. Therefore, it justifies the information it shares using peer-reviewed data from different sources, thus enhancing validity and reliability.
General Notes/Comments Patients in the ICU are in a very weak state, and their immune system is weakened. Infections can be fatal to them. It is critical to reducing their risk of acquiring HAIs.


Patients face a high risk of getting infections from hospitals especially during operative procedures. Reducing this risk through hand washing is critical. The study is very effective and representative of a large population particularly, since it was very thorough, as evidenced by the fact that it took eight years. Using alcohol-based gel as a hand rub can be an effective method of reducing the spread of infections if adequately used. Before performing any activities on a patient, healthcare providers should disinfect their hands.


Despotovic, A., Milosevic, B., Milosevic, I., Mitrovic, N., Cirkovic, A., Jovanovic, S., & Stevanovic, G. (2020). Hospital-acquired infections in the adult intensive care unit—Epidemiology, antimicrobial resistance patterns, and risk factors for acquisition and mortality. American Journal of Infection Control, 48(10), 1211-1215.

Grayson, M. L., Stewardson, A., Russo, P., Ryan, K., Olsen, K., Havers, S., . . . Cruickshank, M. (2018). Effects of the Australian National Hand Hygiene Initiative after 8 years on infection control practices, health-care worker education, and clinical outcomes: a longitudinal study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 18(11), 1269-1277.

Loftus, R. W., Dexter, F., & Robinson, A. (2018). High-risk Staphylococcus aureus transmission in the operating room: a call for widespread improvements in perioperative hand hygiene and patient decolonization practices. American Journal of Infection Control, 46(10), 1134-1141.

Munoz-Figueroa, G. P., & Ojo, O. (2018). The effectiveness of alcohol-based gel for hand sanitising in infection control. British Journal of Nursing, 27(7), 382-388.



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